Marine pollution affects the marine species by posing a threat to their survival or inducing a negative hormonal change in their body. Ground Water Pollution occurs when the ground water at a specific area gets contaminated due to natural or man-made causes.
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Natural occurring substances like Arsenic or Fluoride gets mixed with the groundwater making it toxic. Septic tanks, pesticides and fertilizers also add up to groundwater pollution.
This depletes the oxygen content of water affecting the aquatic species leading to the imbalance in the biodiversity of a place. The pollutants which pollute and contaminate the water come from various sources. It could be majorly categorized as Direct and Indirect Sources. Direct sources include the Urban Sewage System, Industrial Waste Disposal, discharges from refineries, waste treatments plants, Oil Spills in oceans etc.
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These sources of water pollution are identifiable and they directly pollute the water bodies. These are also a major cause of water pollution across the globe. Indirect sources of water pollution are fertilizers, pesticides, chemical dump, septic tanks etc. These pollutants are absorbed through the soil via rain water and reach the aquifer contaminating the groundwater sources. It might also flow to a nearby water bodies and pollute the surface water. Water is vital source of life after air and if it gets polluted it will challenge the existence of the life on this planet.
The prediction that the third world war would be fought for water might also become true. Hence it is important that we should save every drop of water and avoid polluting it and make it available for our future generations. Water Pollution refers to the contamination of natural water resources by harmful and toxic compounds, primarily due to various human activities. Introduction of toxic substances into the water bodies, render the water harmful to consumption by humans, animals and the aquatic life. When allowed to progress, water pollution has long lasting and unwanted effects on the ecology of a place.
It results in depletion of species, loss of bio-diversity, loss of habitation among various other complications. In the further essay we will discuss causes and effects of water pollution. There are various causes of water pollution and almost all of them are human induced, that is, they are caused by human activities like — industrialization, deforestation, garbage littering, and use of chemicals for agricultural purposes etc.
Below, we will discuss the major human induced factors responsible for water pollution. Uncontrolled and continuous discharge of sewage water into the water bodies is the main cause of water pollution around human settlements. Sewage discharge contains water used in our sinks, toilets and other household activities, mixed with industrial wastes. It contains various chemicals and solid pollutants charcoal, mercury, plastic, glass etc.
This untreated sewage dumped into the water bodies render the water harmful for humans as well as aquatic species. Littering is one of the main causes behind the pollution of our water bodies. People tend to throw their household waste onto the road, which due to poor waste management, ultimately reaches the rivers, lakes and other water bodies through wind and rain. Household waste mainly contains non biodegradable materials like plastic wrappers, polythene and glass etc. Also, people visiting riverside or lakes for recreational purposes, litter chips packets, water bottles etc on ground, which ultimately find its way into the water body.
Industrial waste includes the waste generated by the manufacturing industry and other industrial processes. It may contains various pollutants depending on the industries, like — gravel, sand, concrete, dirt, garbage from mess and kitchens, oil, metals etc. Industrial wastes like varnish, paints, metals like mercury and lead, could be severely harmful and come under the category of hazardous wastes. Agriculture industry is regarded as the prime polluter of water bodies around the world.
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Agriculture pollutants contain chemical fertilizers, pesticides and waste from livestock, which gets washed down with rain into the rivers and lakes. Industrial waste is rich in pathogens, viruses and bacteria, thus contaminating the water and making it harmful to use.
Also, high quantity of nutrients from agri waste results in excessive algae formation in the water bodies. Radioactive pollution of water is caused by the industries or educational institutions dealing with radioactive materials for commercial, educational or research purposes. Radioactive substances can stay in water for thousands of years and pose a serious health hazards to humans, animals and aquatic life. Also, the accidental spillage of radioactive substances or testing of radioactive weapons poses a threat of radioactive pollution. Water pollution has an adverse effect on the ecological balance of a place and results in species depletion and habitat destruction.
It also adversely affects the health of humans causing some serious ailments with lifelong complications. Below, we will discuss some of the most prominent effects of water pollution. Water pollution poses a threat of several water borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery etc.
Causes and Effects of Water Pollution
Chemical pollutants like mercury, pesticides and others, may lead to more serious medical conditions like mercury poisoning and other cardio vascular or respiratory ailments. Water pollution results in depletion of natural water resources making freshwater more scarce. Water pollution results in loss of aquatic life due to various reasons. Solid as well as chemical pollutants pose a serious threat to the fishes and other aquatic species.
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Also, some pollutants contain microorganism, ultimately resulting in low oxygen content of the water as the microorganisms consume oxygen. This phenomenon deprives the aquatic life, of the much essential oxygen, ultimately resulting in the loss of species. All the living species — animals, humans, trees, plants, fishes, reptiles, birds etc around a place, up to a large extent, depend on available fresh water resources for their survival.
It could be said that the biological diversity at a place depends on its water resource. On the other hand contamination of the only fresh water resource around an area will cause loss of habitat and biodiversity.
Pollution of water causes loss of habitation, depletion of species, biodiversity loss along with various other derogatory effects. These all effects when combined together ultimately result in environmental loss, which further results in severe conditions like global warming, climate change and acid rain etc. Water pollution not only poses a threat to human health but also to the health of environment as well. Therefore, it is high time to take global initiatives towards preventing further loss of water resources due to pollution.
Water Pollution has become a severe threat in most of the countries across the globe. It is one of the issues which has started giving sleepless nights to the environmentalists in the world. It is already understood that water is one of the essential component for all life forms but still water pollution has become a serious ecological threats in recent times. The mixing of pollutants like chemicals, garbage, pathogens, livestock waste etc into fresh water leading to its degradation is termed as Water Pollution. Industrial and household waste, chemicals from factories, run-off fertilizers and pesticides from agricultural land etc highly affects the quality of water making it toxic for human consumption and use.
It also results in fatal diseases and epidemics causing loss of lives. Water Pollution could be of various types depending on the pollutants and the location affected. Surface pollution, groundwater pollution, marine pollution etc are certain major types of water pollution based on location. Based on the pollutants, water pollution could also be categorized as Organic and Chemical based pollution. Organic Water Pollution is caused due to the presence of microorganism like viruses and bacteria. The household sewage, animals and vegetable waste etc cause this type of water pollution. Chemical Water Pollution is caused due the industrial disposal system which contains nitrates, phosphates, pesticides, drugs, acids etc.